CETAF Specimen Preview Profile (CSPP)

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The CSPP is a minimal set of agreed (RDF) collection metadata elements implemented consistently across CETAF organisations (see minutes of the Geneva meeting of the ISTC stable identifier initiative). The purpose of CSPP is to provide a stable resource enabling preview functions in specimen portals. The CSPP is not meant to be comprehensive, which means that Linked Open (collection) Data implementations of CETAF institutions will usually provide much richer metadata with additional RDF-elements.

CSPP Elements

CSPP element Mandatory RDF resource URI Notes
title yes http://purl.org/dc/terms/title Mandatory. Collection may decide themselves on the content of the title element. This could usually be a scientific name (with or without authorship), but it could also contain additional information on collectors and projects for example.
kindOfMaterial no http://purl.org/dc/terms/type The nature of the specimen. Example: herbarium sheet, fossil, conserved in alcohol
scientificNameCurrent no http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/scientificName The latest full scientific name, with authorship and date information if known.
family no http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/family The full scientific name of the family in which the taxon is classified.
scientifcNameOriginal no http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/previousIdentifications The original name appearing on the specimen.
collectorNumber no http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/fieldNumber An identifier given to the Occurrence at the time it was recorded. Often serves as a link between field notes and an Occurrence record, such as a specimen collector’s number.
collectorName no http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/recordedBy A list (concatenated and separated) of names of people, groups, or organizations responsible for recording the original Occurrence. The primary collector or observer, especially one who applies a personal identifier (recordNumber), should be listed first.
webscaledImageLink no http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/associatedMedia Link to “nice” webscaled image.
latitude no http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/decimalLatitude The geographic latitude (WGS84, in decimal degrees, using the spatial reference system given in geodeticDatum) of the geographic center of a Location. Positive values are north of the Equator, negative values are south of it. Legal values lie between -90 and 90, inclusive.
longitude no http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/decimalLongitude The geographic longitude (WGS84, in decimal degrees, using the spatial reference system given in geodeticDatum) of the geographic center of a Location. Positive values are east of the Greenwich Meridian, negative values are west of it. Legal values lie between -180 and 180, inclusive.
isoCountry no http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/countryCode The standard (ISO 3166-1 alpha-2) code for the country in which the specimen has been collected. Recommended best practice is to use ISO 3166-1-alpha-2 country codes.
collectionDate no http://purl.org/dc/terms/created (ISO) date of the gathering event.
sourceLink no http://purl.org/dc/terms/publisher URI to a web page with information about the institution/collection/owner responsible for publishing the specimen.

CSPP-compliant RDF-documents

An example with all recommended elements would look like this:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"
    xmlns:dwc="http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/"
    xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/terms/">

  <!-- Because this very RDF document got to by a redirect (HTTP response code 303 (=See Other)) this is only metadata about the document, the CETAF-ID is comming later below -->
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="http://herbarium.bgbm.org/data/rdf/B100068798">
    <!-- relate to the CETAF-ID -->
    <dc:subject rdf:resource="http://herbarium.bgbm.org/object/B100068798"/>
    <!-- the date time this very RDF file was created -->
    <dc:created>2019-11-11T15:41:25+01:00</dc:created>
  </rdf:Description>
  <!--This is metadata about this specimen and the originally requested CETAF-ID -->
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="http://herbarium.bgbm.org/object/B100068798">
    <!--   CSPP element: title (mandatory)  -->
    <dc:title>Erysimum salangense Polatschek &amp; Rech.f.</dc:title>
    <!--   CSPP element: collectionDate   -->
    <dc:created>1967-07-14</dc:created>
    <!--   CSPP element: kindOfMaterial   -->
    <dc:type>Specimen</dc:type>
    <!--   CSPP element: sourceLink   -->
    <dc:publisher rdf:resource="https://www.bgbm.org" />
    <!--   CSPP elements: scientificNameCurrent, scientifcNameOriginal, family  -->
    <dwc:scientificName>Erysimum salangense Polatschek &amp; Rech.f.</dwc:scientificName>
    <dwc:previousIdentifications>Erysimum salangense Polatschek &amp; Rech.f.</dwc:previousIdentifications>
    <dwc:family>CRUCIFERAE</dwc:family>
    
    <!--   CSPP element: isoCountry   -->
    <dwc:countryCode>AF</dwc:countryCode>
    <!--   CSPP element: longitude   -->
    <dwc:decimalLongitude>69.033332824707</dwc:decimalLongitude>
    <!--   CSPP element: latitude   -->
    <dwc:decimalLatitude>35.366664886475</dwc:decimalLatitude>
    <!--   CSPP element: collectorName   -->
    <dwc:recordedBy>Rechinger,K.H.</dwc:recordedBy>
    <!--   CSPP element: collectorNumber   -->
    <dwc:fieldNumber>37047</dwc:fieldNumber>
    <!--   CSPP element: webscaledImageLink   -->
    <dwc:associatedMedia rdf:resource="http://ww2.bgbm.org/herbarium/images/B/10/00/68/79/B_10_0068798.jpg"/>
  </rdf:Description>
</rdf:RDF>

A more complex RDF—including other data sources and image data—is the example for the CETAF-ID http://herbarium.bgbm.org/object/B100068798 and can contain the following:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"
    xmlns:dwc="http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/"
    xmlns:dwciri="http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/iri/"
    xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/terms/"
    xmlns:owl="http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#">

  <!--This is metadata about this very RDF document (got to by redirect via HTTP response code 303 (=See Other)) -->
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="http://herbarium.bgbm.org/data/rdf/B100068798">
    <!-- relate to the CETAF-ID -->
    <dc:subject rdf:resource="http://herbarium.bgbm.org/object/B100068798"/>
    <!-- the date time this very RDF file was created -->
    <dc:created>2019-11-11T15:41:25+01:00</dc:created>
  </rdf:Description>
  <!--This is metadata about this specimen and the originally requested CETAF-ID -->
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="http://herbarium.bgbm.org/object/B100068798">
    <!--   CSPP element: title (mandatory)  -->
    <dc:title>Erysimum salangense Polatschek &amp; Rech.f.</dc:title>
    <dc:description>A herbarium specimen of Erysimum salangense Polatschek &amp; Rech.f. collected by Rechinger,K.H.</dc:description>
    <dc:creator>Rechinger, K.H.</dc:creator>
    <!--   CSPP element: collectionDate   -->
    <dc:created>1967-07-14</dc:created>
    <!--   CSPP element: kindOfMaterial   -->
    <dc:type>Specimen</dc:type>
    <!--   CSPP element: sourceLink   -->
    <dc:publisher rdf:resource="https://www.bgbm.org" />
    <dwc:materialSampleID>http://herbarium.bgbm.org/object/B100068798</dwc:materialSampleID>
    <dwc:basisOfRecord>PreservedSpecimen</dwc:basisOfRecord>
    <dwc:collectionCode>B</dwc:collectionCode>
    <dwc:catalogNumber>B 10 0068798</dwc:catalogNumber>
    <!--   CSPP element: scientificNameCurrent   -->
    <dwc:scientificName>Erysimum salangense Polatschek &amp; Rech.f.</dwc:scientificName>
    <!--   CSPP element: scientifcNameOriginal   -->
    <dwc:previousIdentifications>Erysimum salangense Polatschek &amp; Rech.f.</dwc:previousIdentifications>
    <dwc:family>CRUCIFERAE</dwc:family>
    <dwc:genus>Erysimum</dwc:genus>
    <dwc:specificEpithet>salangense</dwc:specificEpithet>
    <dwc:country>Afghanistan</dwc:country>
    <!--   CSPP element: isoCountry   -->
    <dwc:countryCode>AF</dwc:countryCode>
    <dwc:locality>
      Afghanistan: NE-Afghanistan, Kathagan. Sar-i Hauz, in declivibus borealibus jugi Salang. substr. granit. Alt.: 2600 m. 14.07.1967, Leg.: K. H. Rechinger 37047.
    </dwc:locality>
    <!--   CSPP element: longitude   -->
    <dwc:decimalLongitude>69.033332824707</dwc:decimalLongitude>
    <!--   CSPP element: latitude   -->
    <dwc:decimalLatitude>35.366664886475</dwc:decimalLatitude>
    <dwc:eventDate>1967-07-14</dwc:eventDate>
    <dwc:recordNumber>37047</dwc:recordNumber>
    <!--   CSPP element: collectorName   -->
    <dwc:recordedBy>Rechinger,K.H.</dwc:recordedBy>
    <!--   CSPP element: collectorNumber   -->
    <dwc:fieldNumber>37047</dwc:fieldNumber>
    <dwciri:recordedBy rdf:resource="http://www.wikidata.org/entity/Q78738"/>
    <!--   CSPP element: webscaledImageLink   -->
    <dwc:associatedMedia rdf:resource="http://ww2.bgbm.org/herbarium/images/B/10/00/68/79/B_10_0068798.jpg"/>
    <!-- Experimental: This is a relation to iiif media data (see https://iiif.io) -->
    <dc:relation>
      <rdf:Description rdf:about="http://herbarium.bgbm.org/iiif/B100068798">
        <dc:identifier rdf:resource="http://herbarium.bgbm.org/iiif/B100068798"/>
        <dc:type rdf:resource="http://iiif.io/api/presentation/3#Manifest"/>
        <dc:subject rdf:resource="http://herbarium.bgbm.org/object/B100068798"/>
        <dc:format>application/ld+json</dc:format>
        <dc:description xml:lang="en">A IIIF resource for this specimen.</dc:description>
          <dc:created/>
        </rdf:Description>
    </dc:relation>
  </rdf:Description>
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="http://www.wikidata.org/entity/Q78738">
    <owl:sameAs rdf:resource="http://purl.oclc.org/net/edu.harvard.huh/guid/uuid/d5fea488-5786-4106-af90-396ef452c3aa"/>
    <owl:sameAs rdf:resource="https://viaf.org/viaf/100383596/"/>
  </rdf:Description>
</rdf:RDF>

Note that …

  • rdf:Description first describes the very RDF resource (got to by redirect) and it relates to the requested CETAF-ID by dc:subject
  • all the following rdf:Description elaborate the CSPP-details and more related properties to this species data (images, other same data objects etc.)
    Other Data: for instance dwciri:recordedBy points to a WikiData IRI resource
    •  this is further described by another rdf:Description which in itself points via owl:sameAs to other resources to be equal as the WikiData resource (this illustrates perhaps better read in TriG format)
    • note that the whole dwciri namespace is intended for use with non-literal objects and the dwciri:recordedBy here has the same meaning as dwc:recordedBy and can be repeatable as well but points to an IRI-reference object instead of being a literal string value.
    Media: besides the “nice” webscaled image (dwc:associatedMedia) …
    • … there is also one dc:relation defined again in a rdf:Description with details for software clients that understand triple i-f (iiif—International Image Interoperability Framework https://iiif.io)
    • … there could also be further dc:relation after the first one if it needs to, containing other relations

Additional recommended data terms

Data Term RDF resource URI Notes
dwc:institutionCode http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/institutionCode The name (or acronym) in use by the institution having custody of the object(s) or information referred to in the record. Examples: MVZ, BGBM, CLO, UCMP
dwc:institutionID http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/institutionID An identifier for the institution having custody of the object(s) or information referred to in the record. Examples: the ROR ID like https://ror.org/00bv4cx53 (here for BGBM)
dwc:basisOfRecord http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/basisOfRecord The specific nature of the data record. Comments: Recommended best practice is to use the standard label of one of the Darwin Core classes. Examples: PreservedSpecimen, FossilSpecimen, LivingSpecimen, MaterialSample, Event, HumanObservation, MachineObservation, Taxon, Occurrence
dwciri:recordedBy http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/iri/recordedBy A person, group, or organization responsible for recording the original Occurrence. (Note that terms in the dwciri namespace are intended to be used in RDF with non-literal objects). Example: <dwciri:recordedBy rdf:resource="http://www.wikidata.org/entity/Q78738"/>—this is the IRI-notation equivalent to the string notation of <dwc:recordedBy>Rechinger, K.H.</dwc:recordedBy>

Conversion into other formats (help for development)

For the purpose of developping the meta data eventually into RDF you can checked your RDF online by https://www.w3.org/RDF/Validator/ or use the command line tools of Apache Jena (jena.apache.org) which provide useful commands to parse, check and convert from one format to another—this can also help for readability.

RDF to TriG Format (CLI: trig) — See TriG Documentation (www.w3.org). This format can be read like sentences with a final dot marking the end of the statements; additional elements are separated by semicolon. (toggle on the right to see hidden content)

To convert it use in CLI

turtle --output=trig B100068798-Wiki-Example.rdf > B100068798-Wiki-Example.rdf.trig 2> B100068798-Wiki-Example.rdf.error.log

If you want to generate RDF from TriG back or have developed your meta data in TriG and want to generate RDF, use

trig --output=rdf/xml B100068798-Wiki-Example.rdf.trig

The RDF from above converted into TriG format looks like:

@prefix rdf:  <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> .
@prefix dwc:  <http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/> .
@prefix dwciri:  <http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/iri/> .
@prefix dc:  <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix owl:  <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .

<http://herbarium.bgbm.org/data/rdf/B100068798>
        dc:subject  <http://herbarium.bgbm.org/object/B100068798> ;
        dc:created  "2019-11-11T15:41:25+01:00" .

<http://herbarium.bgbm.org/object/B100068798>
        dc:title                     "Erysimum salangense Polatschek & Rech.f." ;
        dc:description               "A herbarium specimen of Erysimum salangense Polatschek & Rech.f. collected by Rechinger,K.H." ;
        dc:creator                   "Rechinger, K.H." ;
        dc:created                   "1967-07-14" ;
        dc:type                      "Specimen" ;
        dc:publisher                 <https://www.bgbm.org> ;
        dwc:materialSampleID         "http://herbarium.bgbm.org/object/B100068798" ;
        dwc:basisOfRecord            "Specimen" ;
        dwc:collectionCode           "B" ;
        dwc:catalogNumber            "B 10 0068798" ;
        dwc:scientificName           "Erysimum salangense Polatschek & Rech.f." ;
        dwc:previousIdentifications  "Erysimum salangense Polatschek & Rech.f." ;
        dwc:family                   "CRUCIFERAE" ;
        dwc:genus                    "Erysimum" ;
        dwc:specificEpithet          "salangense" ;
        dwc:country                  "Afghanistan" ;
        dwc:countryCode              "AF" ;
        dwc:locality                 "\n      Afghanistan: NE-Afghanistan, Kathagan. Sar-i Hauz, in declivibus borealibus jugi Salang. substr. granit. Alt.: 2600 m. 14.07.1967, Leg.: K. H. Rechinger 37047.\n    " ;
        dwc:decimalLongitude         "69.033332824707" ;
        dwc:decimalLatitude          "35.366664886475" ;
        dwc:eventDate                "1967-07-14" ;
        dwc:recordNumber             "37047" ;
        dwc:recordedBy               "Rechinger,K.H." ;
        dwc:fieldNumber              "37047" ;
        dwciri:recordedBy            <http://www.wikidata.org/entity/Q78738> ;
        dwc:associatedMedia          <http://ww2.bgbm.org/herbarium/images/B/10/00/68/79/B_10_0068798.jpg> ;
        dc:relation                  <http://herbarium.bgbm.org/iiif/B100068798> .

<http://herbarium.bgbm.org/iiif/B100068798>
        dc:identifier   <http://herbarium.bgbm.org/iiif/B100068798> ;
        dc:type         <http://iiif.io/api/presentation/3#Manifest> ;
        dc:subject      <http://herbarium.bgbm.org/object/B100068798> ;
        dc:format       "application/ld+json" ;
        dc:description  "A IIIF resource for this specimen."@en ;
        dc:created      "" .

<http://www.wikidata.org/entity/Q78738>
        owl:sameAs  <http://purl.oclc.org/net/edu.harvard.huh/guid/uuid/d5fea488-5786-4106-af90-396ef452c3aa> ;
        owl:sameAs  <https://viaf.org/viaf/100383596/> .

RDF to Simple Triples (CLI: rdfparse) — See Documentation of Simple Triples of Turtle format (www.w3.org). This step converts or resolves RDF into subjectpredicateobject. (toggle on the right to see hidden content)

The RDF-example provided above can be checked using turtle B100068798-Wiki-Example.rdf

<http://herbarium.bgbm.org/data/rdf/B100068798> <http://purl.org/dc/terms/subject> <http://herbarium.bgbm.org/object/B100068798> .
<http://herbarium.bgbm.org/data/rdf/B100068798> <http://purl.org/dc/terms/created> "2019-11-11T15:41:25+01:00" .
<http://herbarium.bgbm.org/object/B100068798> <http://purl.org/dc/terms/title> "Erysimum salangense Polatschek & Rech.f." .
<http://herbarium.bgbm.org/object/B100068798> <http://purl.org/dc/terms/description> "A herbarium specimen of Erysimum salangense Polatschek & Rech.f. collected by Rechinger,K.H." .
<http://herbarium.bgbm.org/object/B100068798> <http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator> "Rechinger, K.H." .
<http://herbarium.bgbm.org/object/B100068798> <http://purl.org/dc/terms/created> "1967-07-14" .
<http://herbarium.bgbm.org/object/B100068798> <http://purl.org/dc/terms/type> "Specimen" .
<http://herbarium.bgbm.org/object/B100068798> <http://purl.org/dc/terms/publisher> <https://www.bgbm.org> .
<http://herbarium.bgbm.org/object/B100068798> <http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/materialSampleID> "http://herbarium.bgbm.org/object/B100068798" .
<http://herbarium.bgbm.org/object/B100068798> <http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/basisOfRecord> "Specimen" .
<http://herbarium.bgbm.org/object/B100068798> <http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/collectionCode> "B" .
<http://herbarium.bgbm.org/object/B100068798> <http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/catalogNumber> "B 10 0068798" .
<http://herbarium.bgbm.org/object/B100068798> <http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/scientificName> "Erysimum salangense Polatschek & Rech.f." .
<http://herbarium.bgbm.org/object/B100068798> <http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/previousIdentifications> "Erysimum salangense Polatschek & Rech.f." .
<http://herbarium.bgbm.org/object/B100068798> <http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/family> "CRUCIFERAE" .
<http://herbarium.bgbm.org/object/B100068798> <http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/genus> "Erysimum" .
<http://herbarium.bgbm.org/object/B100068798> <http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/specificEpithet> "salangense" .
<http://herbarium.bgbm.org/object/B100068798> <http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/country> "Afghanistan" .
<http://herbarium.bgbm.org/object/B100068798> <http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/countryCode> "AF" .
<http://herbarium.bgbm.org/object/B100068798> <http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/locality> "\n      Afghanistan: NE-Afghanistan, Kathagan. Sar-i Hauz, in declivibus borealibus jugi Salang. substr. granit. Alt.: 2600 m. 14.07.1967, Leg.: K. H. Rechinger 37047.\n    " .
<http://herbarium.bgbm.org/object/B100068798> <http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/decimalLongitude> "69.033332824707" .
<http://herbarium.bgbm.org/object/B100068798> <http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/decimalLatitude> "35.366664886475" .
<http://herbarium.bgbm.org/object/B100068798> <http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/eventDate> "1967-07-14" .
<http://herbarium.bgbm.org/object/B100068798> <http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/recordNumber> "37047" .
<http://herbarium.bgbm.org/object/B100068798> <http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/recordedBy> "Rechinger,K.H." .
<http://herbarium.bgbm.org/object/B100068798> <http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/fieldNumber> "37047" .
<http://herbarium.bgbm.org/object/B100068798> <http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/iri/recordedBy> <http://www.wikidata.org/entity/Q78738> .
<http://herbarium.bgbm.org/object/B100068798> <http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/associatedMedia> <http://ww2.bgbm.org/herbarium/images/B/10/00/68/79/B_10_0068798.jpg> .
<http://herbarium.bgbm.org/object/B100068798> <http://purl.org/dc/terms/relation> <http://herbarium.bgbm.org/iiif/B100068798> .
<http://herbarium.bgbm.org/iiif/B100068798> <http://purl.org/dc/terms/identifier> <http://herbarium.bgbm.org/iiif/B100068798> .
<http://herbarium.bgbm.org/iiif/B100068798> <http://purl.org/dc/terms/type> <http://iiif.io/api/presentation/3#Manifest> .
<http://herbarium.bgbm.org/iiif/B100068798> <http://purl.org/dc/terms/subject> <http://herbarium.bgbm.org/object/B100068798> .
<http://herbarium.bgbm.org/iiif/B100068798> <http://purl.org/dc/terms/format> "application/ld+json" .
<http://herbarium.bgbm.org/iiif/B100068798> <http://purl.org/dc/terms/description> "A IIIF resource for this specimen."@en .
<http://herbarium.bgbm.org/iiif/B100068798> <http://purl.org/dc/terms/created> "" .
<http://www.wikidata.org/entity/Q78738> <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl/sameAs> <http://purl.oclc.org/net/edu.harvard.huh/guid/uuid/d5fea488-5786-4106-af90-396ef452c3aa> .
<http://www.wikidata.org/entity/Q78738> <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl/sameAs> <https://viaf.org/viaf/100383596/> .

Further Questions and Discussion